I have sent email questions to some Darwinists who have not yet replied. I list my questions on the right.

Two questions about the textbook Principles of Population Genetics by Daniel L. Hartl & Andrew G. Clark (2nd edition, Sinauer, 1989)
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Comments by Arthur S. Lodge on "Systematics and the future of biology" by Edward O. Wilson
Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. vol. 102, suppl. 1, p.6520.

May 14, 2005

Professor Wilson wrote:

"The other overarching principle of biology is that all living phenomena originated and evolved by natural selection" (p. 6520, para. 2)

I beg to differ.

Morowitz' estimate (1) of the chance of forming even a single cell by natural forces is so small that 2 billion years is but a drop in the ocean of time that would have been required for any hope of success.

Natural selection can lead to an increase in adaptation, but an increase in adaptation does not entail an increase in complexity or information (2). Since it is the generation of the high levels of complexity and information present in living organisms that needs to be explained, natural selection does not do the trick.


Arthur S. Lodge


(1) H. J. Morowitz, Energy Flow in Biology (Academic Press, New York & London, 1968), p.317.
(2) Lee Spetner, Not by Chance! (Judaica Press, New York, 1998), p. 141, para. 2.

1. 12/9/01 to c92@psu.edu

Dear Professor Clark,

Why do you use the words "Darwinian Evolution" in the title to Chapter 1? I could find no discussion of random, spontaneous mutations in Chapter 1.


Arthur Lodge

2. 12/22/01 to c92@psu.edu

Dear Professor Clark,

On p.xii of the Preface in your textbook Principles of Population Genetics (2nd edition), you wrote:

"The process of mutation is now known to be more complex and less random than was originally imagined..."

I would be grateful if you would kindly tell me how many different evolutionary processes are now known (with reasonable certainty) to be governed by spontaneous, random, mutations and natural selection. I could not find from your index a reference to this information.

Thank you,

Arthur S. Lodge

3. To Professor Will B. Provine, Cornell University

Dear Will,

Can you give me any references to papers that give evidence showing that spontaneous, random mutations play a significant role in evolutionary processes?

I have Luria and Delbruck, but I wonder what others there are.